How to Start Mushroom Farming Business? [Investments, Profit Margin, Cost]
If you are a farmer and want to earn more and start a new business the mushroom farming can be beneficial for you. It requires lot of efforts and hard work to make it grow well but if you work hard then it is very profitable. States like Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan have already started its farming. Cold states like Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir have also started practicing mushroom farming. Asia and Africa have high demand of mushrooms.
What is a mushroom?
It is a plant but is often seen as meat. It cannot be termed as a vegetarian plant. There is lots of protein and other essential nutrients present in it like Vitamin D. it is formed by fungus and is umbrella shaped.
Types of mushroom in India:
According to international scientists there are around 10,000 species of mushroom present on earth. But if you see in terms of business then only 5 types of mushroom are available. These are button mushroom, paddy straw, especially mushroom, medicine mushroom, dhingari and oyster mushroom. Button mushroom is the most popular one and is also known as milky mushroom.
Place to buy mushroom seeds online and offline in India:
You can buy mushroom seeds online through following link-
or you can also obtain the seeds from government farmer/agricultural centres. For instance if you are from Haryana then you can get these seeds at the following address-
Village talhedi, pehova kurukshetra-136128, Haryana (India).
Mushroom seeds price:
I kg seeds will cost you Rs 75 which changes through quality and brand. So you will have to decide beforehand that what mushroom you want to grow.
How to sell mushroom in India?
Mushrooms are demanded at various places. Various hotels and medicine manufacturing companies are also after it. Mushrooms are mostly used in Chinese food. Because of its other uses and features it is also used in field of medical science. It is also exported and imported to various countries. So there are many places available to sell it.
Mushroom cultivation techniques:
You can artificially grow mushrooms but you will require a lot of space where in you can grow mushrooms. Our country has started the business of mushroom farming in two ways. You can either create a company or start the business or if you are a farmer then you can grow mushrooms in your farm. You will be required to cover that part of land from all sides just like a room. This business can prove to be a boon for you.
Small scale mushroom growing:
If you just want to earn a little extra income then keep it at a small scale. This will not affect your main business. Everything depends on your land when it comes to business of mushroom. The technique for growing mushroom is same at all levels. If you want then you can also start growing Aloe Vera.
Investment required for growing mushroom:
The investment level varies with your budget and level of business. You will be required to spend on the land and care taking of the mushrooms. You will also have to spend on pesticides. If you start the business at small scale then you will have to spend Rs 10000 to Rs 50000, whereas for large scale Rs 1, 00,000 TO Rs 10, 00,000 can be your investment.
Mushroom farming profit margin:
If we talk about profits then there is growth rate of 12.9% all over the world. This means that you can earn good profits in less time in this business. If you start growing it in 100 square feet area then you can earn a profit of Rs 1 lakh to Rs 5 lakh per year. It all depends on the technology used.
Materials required for growing mushroom:
In India, mushrooms are grown during winters as it requires lower temperature when being grown. Grass or bushels of wheat is also required for it. You should also buy pesticide for safety purpose. It can also be cultivated in room but you have to make sure that there is moisture present over that place. You can also buy carbonic and a carbonic chemicals and nitrogen nutrients for its better growth.
Commercial mushroom growing systems:
To grow mushrooms at larger scale you will require large space and large number of seeds. The only difference between the two scales is the cost, place and amount of raw material.
Mushroom farming process:
Mushroom farming at home-you will require a room for it. You can also build a shed of wood and start cultivating mushrooms there. All the other steps are the same.
How to make mushroom compost at home?
You require compost for mushroom farming for which you can use wheat husk for this purpose. You will need to make it germ free so that you encounter no problem while cultivating mushroom and also the nutrients of mushroom aren’t lost. You will be required to mix 1.5kg formalin and 150gms baebistin into 1500 litres of water and also mix pesticide well in it. And after it mix 1 quintal 50kgs wheat husk and keep it covered for some time. It will then serve as a medium to grow mushrooms.
Spread the husk mixture in an open space so that the air can reduce the moisture by 50%. You then have to capsize it again and again and it is then ready for plantation. We take polythene of 16*18 and plantation is then done layer wise. One layer of fodder then seeds then again repeats it and 3-4 layers are formed. Remember to punch two holes at the bottom of that polythene bag so that extra water gets drained. Tie it tightly so that no air remains in it, the ratio of seed is to fodder should be equal. This is only done in milky mushroom cultivation. For oyster mushrooms mixing technique is used. The seeds and husk are mixed without layers. After the completion of plantation process small holes are drafted into that bag so that mushroom plant can pop out from it.
Mushroom cultivation precautions:
You have to save this crop from air for 15 days for which you will have to pack the room. After 15 days open the room and arrange fan also. Till this stage the mushroom crop appears to be white in colour.
How to maintain humidity in mushroom cultivation:
You will have to sprinkle water on walls to main the level of humidity. The level of humidity should be up to 70 degrees and you should also keep a check on room temperature. For a well cultivated mushroom crop 20-30 degrees temperature is best fit.
Ways to keep mushroom bags:
You should keep the mushroom bags properly. Either you can hang it with the help of a wood or rope or create a netted bed like structure on which you can place the bags.
When and how to cut the crop?
According to scientists, these crops are ready to cut after 30-40 days. You can see the mushrooms easily and you can pluck them with your hands.
Government subsidies for mushroom cultivation:
Haryana is holding training for growing mushroom crop. Government has also started loan facility for growing mushroom. You can get the information regarding this on the website https://www.nabard.org . You will have to make a business proposal and present it at a government office. You will also have to present your PAN card, Aadhar card and residence proof and bank account details over there. Then you will be eligible for subsidy by the government. If you are a small farmer then you will get a subsidy of 40% on per bag of mushroom and 20% for normal farmer. If you don’t want any subsidy then you are not required to get it registered.
Mushroom cultivation government training:
The government is helping small farmers by providing them subsidy. Apart from subsidy government is also providing free of cost training for mushroom cultivation at various training centres which teaches you how to cultivate mushroom.